Prof. Espada is director of the Institute for Political Studies at the Catholic Universi-ty of Portugal and holder of the European Parliament/Bronislaw Geremek Euro-pean Civilization Chair at the College of Europe, Natolin, in Warsaw. This is an abridged version of an article that original-ly appeared in the October 2012 edition of the Journal of Democracy. © 2012 National Endowment for Democracy and the Johns Hopkins University Press. Re-printed with permission.